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Masculinity in crisis: effeminate Effeminate men have become a scapegoat upon which anxiety over the current social problems such as dissolved marriages is displaced. Drawing on research of print and electronic media in China from tothis paper enlightens the inextricably intertwined relationships between a lack of manhood and the strength of the state in the globalizing era of China.
Pictures of him as a woman abound in the online media.
As I will show in this paper, effeminate men have become a scapegoat upon which anxiety over the current social problems such as dissolved marriages is displaced. These studies have largely approached masculinity from a Western perspective and attended to peripheral masculinities such as gay or black see Kimmel ; Connell; Bordo China scholars Xueping Zhong and Kam Louie have examined masculinity through in-depth readings and intricate analysis of Chinese films and literary works produced throughout the crucial historical junctures in China.
As such, researchers approached the issue of masculinity through a historical analysis, but to date, no research has been conducted to illuminate the intersection between a crisis of manhood and the postsocialist Chinese state in contemporary globalizing China.
A multitude of agents and experts are determined to revive and strengthen the nation through building a strong manhood and sharpening proper male gender roles. In the first section, I will historicize masculinities in China and provide a historical context for this paper.
In the second section, I will discuss the issue of effeminate men in the media. I will then explore the intersection between masculinity in crisis and the nation-state. In the fourth section, I will analyze the ways in which experts and educators depict the root causes of the lack of manhood in effeminate men.
In the fifth section, I will explore the devised solutions to the problem of masculinity in crisis.
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Finally, I will conclude with insights and illuminations about masculinity, gender roles, rising professionals, and the nation-state in the changing era of postsocialist China. Before the May Fourth Movement inthe courtesan house was a site that produced an elite masculinity of self-control and cool demeanor. Elite masculinities had to be validated by the courtesans, the arbiters of their masculinity, as worldly, urbane, knowledgeable, sophisticated, and refined Henriot ; Van Gulik Elite masculinity was attacked because it was identified with the elite cultural tradition Larson Nationalism produced a new model of masculinity.
For the first time in Chinese history, the sexual ability of Chinese men was not measured internally as a means to establish social class but came to be measured against the outside predators whose military prowess identified them as more sexually potent see Brownell Zheng This radical notion that women should enjoy sex was not out of a concern for the happiness of women, but rather reflected the new competitive capitalist economic model where men proved themselves through entrepreneurial activity. Chinese entrepreneurs, instead of taking offense against the Taiwanese and Japanese businessmen who had taken Chinese mistresses, simply emulated them and took mistresses themselves Brownell While young entrepreneurial men recovered their economic and sexual potency, older retired cadres were faced with impotence Brownell So devastated was this group that there was an upsurge in the market for tonics to reinvigorate their sexual life.
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Here, the link between politics, economics, and sexuality is drawn. Men with economic and political power become sexually potent, whereas men who have lost such power feel emasculated by the market reforms. Zheng Men were judged not by birth status or even education but by their competitive abilities. Their subjugation of women represented the recovery of their manhood in postsocialist China. Qiao These men, according to the report, appeared as men during the daytime but as women at professional rennes gentleman seeks younger black woman.
Xiao Yu was tall, slender, white-skinned, with long and beautiful hair. A host of other media reports also focused on how these effeminate men utilized thick facial powder and make-up to make them look like women D. One summer when she was riding the train home, two male students sat opposite to her, carrying two huge paper bags.
They took out a huge amount of snacks from the bags and were eating them for one hour straight without rest. Men nowadays — why are you all turning into women? Qiao ; D. Qiao ; Lan The anti-feminized men discourse represented a serious issue and suggested a crisis of manhood and a crisis of the nation-state.
Feminization of men was castigated as a symptom of social degeneration, ultimately a trope denoting a nation-state in danger because of a dysfunctional Chinese manhood.
Professional rennes gentleman seeks younger black woman, educators, and counselors argued that the feminization of males in the past had led to the colonial domination of China. Authors contended that a harmonious nation should have men who behave like men and women who behave like women, otherwise the nation would cease to be harmonious Zhang Yuan Luo, General of the Chinese Military Council, published an article that was posted, cited, and expanded throughout the internet Luo Military power, according to Luo, reflected national integration and economic power. A man needs to be strong and resilient.
The initiator of the league spent ten thousand yuan on a heavy Tang Dynasty Sword and waved the sword every night imagining himself as a hero rescuing the good and combating the evil. An ex-soldier member went through survival training in the woods with little sustenance for seven days during which time he drank spring water, ate snakes, rats and birds.
Members believed that men should be strong and tough. They convened online every night to discuss strategies to fight against the phenomenon of effeminate men Chong According to the experts, family and schools should be regulated and reconfigured to resolve the issue of the crisis of manhood in postsocialist China.
Sun believed that the education system centered on entrance exams was the most violent killer of manhood Sun He argued that because schools planned no outside activities, provided no sports equipment, and prohibited students from running between classrooms, boys, whose biology required extracurricular activities, believed that schools were set up against them. The educational model that lacked game-play and enslaved students with books, repressed boys, and the lack of positive feedback in schools also damaged boys severely Sun The stringent education system, as the experts argued, rewarded obedience and docility as the only criteria of a good student, thus robbing children of ingenuity and creativity, extinguishing their personalities, and turning them into domesticated cats Yue ; Lu ; Mu In this system, the experts argued, because girls were more meticulous than boys with better self-control and better memorizing skills, their grades tended to be higher than those of boys and allowed them to enter better schools, putting boys at a disadvantage Lu In a junior high school, it was said that only three of the 26 leaders were male Mu Women also eclipsed men in professional performance and exam grades for government work, as authors noted Mu Science majors in universities used to be dominated by males, but are now equally divided between males and females; equal admission of women into medical schools also ended the era of male domination Mu Almost no male teachers could be found in nurseries, and very few taught in elementary schools Gu They were also chastised for doting on only children, prohibiting boys from climbing trees, climbing mountains, or getting into water, and preventing boys from being independent, adventurous, and taking challenges, thus robbing boys of strong wills and sharp edges Gu ; Mu They were also depicted as seedlings in a greenhouse that could not withstand any wind or sunshine Lu ; Mu In his book Saving BoysSun identified the father as the key to nurturing manhood in his son.
When fathers were busy advancing their careers, as Sun stated, they deprived the boys of an opportunity to learn to be a man. Authors pointed out that in too many families, mothers were dominant and fathers were submissive-like lambs Lu ; Xi Domineering mothers, according to authors, affected sons in a negative way Lu According to the rhetoric of psychologists in the media, in normal situations, daughters were closer to their fathers and sons were closer to their mothers. As a result, the son self-recognized as a female rather than a male, exhibiting timid and submissive sensibilities and displaying a female posture, female mannerism and female disposition.
In addition, their mother-worship either caused their inability to feel attracted to a woman who was seen as far inferior to their mother, or made them revere all women as holy, inaccessible mothers. Third, effeminate looks and a weak physique made some boys want to professional rennes gentleman seeks younger black woman with girls and miss their male-role education.
Due to their lack of courage and decisiveness, these boys sought protection from strong men and attachment to strong lovers. Zhong He noted that this problem was difficult to resolve, and that through counseling, he had discovered that this problem was caused by the parents Zhuang Upon discovery of these issues, parents were advised to work professional rennes gentleman seeks younger black woman to solve the problems or seek guidance from counseling centers Bo As we saw earlier, encouraging heterosexual dating was seen as the solution to gender professional rennes gentleman seeks younger black woman and the crisis of manhood in China.
In his book Saving BoysSun argued that gender difference should be amplified in childhood years and that gender-difference education could combat the phenomenon of feminized boys and gender ambiguity, and create a new generation of real men Sun Evaluation of boys should emphasize their sporting and adventurous nature, whereas the evaluation of girls should be based on their superior memory and language skills.
Parents, as authors argued, should encourage boys to accept challenges in life, provide boys with personality training, and inculcate in boys the meaning of manhood Gu ; Wang ; L. For instance, in Zhengzhou city, the 18th Junior High School stipulated 28 evaluation standards for boys and 20 evaluation standards for girls, requiring boys to be masculine and girls to be demure Gu The goal was to instill in boys a sense of manhood and terminate the phenomenon of feminized men. Zheng ; Mu To completely eliminate the problem of gender misrecognition, authors argued that both schools and parents, especially the father, should indoctrinate boys with male gender roles and girls with female gender roles Zhang More specifically, it reflects the anxieties about gender, social security, and the nation-state.
In this article, I argue that underpinning the discursive debate about effeminate men and a crisis of masculinity is the need to strengthen the nation-state. Indeed, it is believed that to revive and strengthen the nation requires building a strong manhood and sharpening proper male gender roles.
Sexuality is appropriated to control gender in the same way that gender is utilized to control sexuality. The central concern of media discourse is gender behavior, rather than sexual behavior. The characteristics ascribed to these men as passive and weak are considered deviant.
Their mistaken gender identities and misrecognition of gender is not only depicted as creating a crisis of manhood in the nation, but also portrayed as an indicator of poor parenting and a problematic education system.
As demonstrated in this paper, the rising middle-class medical professionals in contemporary China subscribe to the mainstream sexual morality and advocate cures for and prevention of gender misrecognition. In an effort to advance their profession and procure influence, medical professionals have a vested interest in producing narratives that do not counter cultural norms.
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This will not only ensure their prestige and influence, but also draw more income to their profession, as parents and effeminate men continuously pay fees to seek their professional, invaluable advice. New York, Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Armonk, NY, M. Sharpe,