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Abused participants were more preoccupied with sex, younger at first voluntary intercourse, more likely to have been teen mothers, and endorsed lower birth control efficacy than comparison participants. When psychological functioning earlier in development was examined, sexual preoccupation was predicted by anxiety, sexual aversion was predicted by childhood sexual behavior problems, and sexual ambivalence simultaneous sexual preoccupation and sexual aversion was predicted by pathological dissociation.
Findings also indicate that biological father abuse may be associated with greater sexual aversion and sexual ambivalence. Ladies want sex jennie late s and early s saw a steady increase in the reporting of childhood sexual abuse in this country. Even though substantiated cases of childhood sexual abuse appear to be on the decline, the fact remains that a substantial proportion of young people growing up in recent decades experienced inappropriate, unwanted, or disturbing sexual trauma, and these people are just now beginning to take on the developmental tasks of late adolescence and early adulthood—a period saturated with issues of sexuality, identity, and intimacy.
The effects of childhood sexual abuse are thought to be largely deleterious and possibly pervasive throughout development. Reviews of research on the effects of sexual abuse have been provided by Beitchman et al. Because of its explicit sexual nature, the impact of childhood sexual abuse likely differs from other forms of child maltreatment in that there are increased possibilities for the development of sexual distortions 1 as issues of sexuality and intimacy become more salient.
Indeed, many studies have reported a link between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent distortions in sexuality including heightened sexual activity and permissive attitudes e. Although it appears that the association between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent sexual distortion is unequivocal, research in this area has yielded inconsistent.
Some studies have reported a relatively strong association between ladies want sex jennie sexual abuse and sexual distortion e. There are several reasonable explanations for these inconsistencies.
First, there are vast methodological inconsistencies that plague this area of research. The majority of studies are cross-sectional, relying on retrospective self-reports of childhood sexual abuse. Many of these studies contain relatively high-risk samples e. Second, there are inconsistencies in the operational definitions of childhood sexual abuse varying from noncontact abuse or any unwanted sexual experience e.
Differing definitions regarding what constitutes abuse can result in fluctuating conclusions about the impact of early sexual trauma on later sexual distortion. Further, many studies lack details about the characteristics of abuse e.
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Third, there is likely more than one developmental trajectory describing the effects of sexual trauma on later sexuality. There is evidence for heightened sexuality or sexual preoccupation such as excessive masturbation, sexual obsession, increased sex play, and early coitus as well as evidence for sexual aversion and avoidance such as negative feelings about sex, sexual dysfunction, greater anxiety regarding sex, more sexual guilt, and an avoidance of sexual thoughts and feelings.
There is also the third possibility that there are those who experience both a sexual preoccupation and an aversion toward sex simultaneously—those who believe sex is undesirable but who also possess a compulsion to engage in sexual activity. Little empirical work has been done to identify distinct trajectories within the same sample, and those ladies want sex jennie have attempted to do so have essentially been unsuccessful e.
Operational definitions of sexuality are often limited to either promiscuity or aversion and assessments are rarely comprehensive enough to measure both. The current study is a long-term prospective, longitudinal study in which the participants were assessed several times over a year period starting in mid- to late childhood, through adolescence, and into early adulthood.
The study included a well-matched comparison group and assessed potentially confounding control variables throughout development. The operational definition of childhood sexual abuse was well conceptualized and stringent disclosure of abuse in childhood, genital contact abuse by a family member, ladies want sex jennie abuse confirmed by child protective service agenciesand details of the sexual abuse experience were assessed comprehensively by caseworker reports.
A comprehensive assessment of both sexual attitudes and activity was used to ensure that multiple aspects of sexual distortion could be examined reliably. Childhood sexual abuse would be associated with heightened sexual preoccupation and activity including early ages at voluntary coital initiation, ladies want sex jennie s of sex partners, greater occurrences of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV risk behaviors, ineffective birth control usage, higher pregnancy rates, and lower ages at birth of first.
A subset of sexually abused participants would exhibit sexual ambivalence or a heightened sexual preoccupation coupled with greater sexual aversion. Sexually abused participants who experienced severe abuse or who experienced biological father BF abuse would exhibit more pronounced sexual distortion. Participants are the subjects of a longitudinal study of the long-term impact of child sexual abuse on female development.
Abused females were referred by protective service agencies in the greater Washington, Ladies want sex jennie. To recruit the comparison sample, we put requests for participants in community newspapers and posted them in welfare, daycare, and community facilities in the same neighborhoods in which the abused girls lived. Comparison girls were similar to the abused girls in terms of ethnic group, age, predisclosure socioeconomic status SESand family constellation one- or two-parent families.
All families ranged from low to middle SES, with mean Hollingshead scores of approximately 35 defined as blue-collar or working class. The initial assessment Time 1 sample consisted of 84 abused and 82 comparison participants composing the total sample of and ranged in age from 5. Four follow-up interviews were conducted Times 2 through 5.
Participants ranged in age at Time 2 from 6. The sample at Time 5 consisted of of the original participants.
During the course of the interviews 12 comparison participants revealed that they had been victims of childhood sexual abuse and were dropped from analyses resulting in a total sample of 77 abused, 70 comparison. Because of this loss, 19 new comparison families were recruited using the same procedures as described earlier for drawing the initial sample for participation in Times 4 and 5. Data from these participants were used in cross-sectional analyses bringing the total sample for Time 5 to 77 abused, 89 comparison.
Abused and comparison groups did not differ with respect to age, minority status, or SES, but a greater percentage of the abused group reported being married or cohabiting by the Time 5 assessment relative to the comparison group Because the assessment of sexual behavior is extremely sensitive, especially for adolescents, we sought to maximize our ability to obtain ladies want sex jennie information by assessing both sexual activity and attitudes.
All participants were asked to respond to items concerning voluntary sexual activity, not about sexual activity forced on them i. This method of administration provides an atmosphere of anonymity without embarrassment or fear of offending a live interviewer. Computerized methods have been shown to elicit more accurate responses than face-to-face interviews in the assessment of sensitive materials in adolescent samples Turner et al. The Ladies want sex jennie is programmed with a divergent questioning scheme according to the way in which participants respond to specific items.
All participants were administered the initial set of items having to do with sexual attitudes, behaviors, and activities in general.
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If participants indicated that they have had voluntary sexual intercourse, a second set of items was administered, and those who have been pregnant received a third set of additional items. Forty-three nonbranching items having to do with sexual attitudes were factor analyzed and 4 reliable, invariant from Time 4 to Time 5, see section sexual attitude factors emerged including Sexual Permissiveness, Sexual Preoccupation, Negative Attitude Toward Sex, and feeling internal and external Pressure to Engage in Sex.
The of the factor analysis and the accompanying psychometrics are included in Table 1 and are discussed in the section. Sexual ambivalence was created by adding scores on the Sexual Preoccupation subscale to scores on the sexual aversion variable. Ladies want sex jennie loadings are in bold, hyperplane loadings are underlined.
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In work Trickett et al. To ascertain the extent to which the ladies want sex jennie of sexual activity and attitude outcome variables could be explained by confounding psychological functioning, we assessed several psychological inventories earlier in development. These two devices yield information about the extent of dissociative experiences while not under the influence of alcohol or drugs such as amnesia, perplexing forgetfulness, absorption and enthrallment, depersonalization and derealization, and passive influence phenomena. This device assesses inappropriate sexual behaviors such as public displays of sexualized behavior, inappropriate sex play, and excessive masturbation.
At Time 1, participants responded to the self-report psychological functioning questionnaire items that were read to them. Mothers ladies want sex jennie informant measures while the child was being tested as part of a 2-hr testing session deed to assess a host of physical, psychological, and social development variables. At Times 4 and 5, participants completed paper-and-pencil versions of the self-report psychological functioning questionnaires and then completed the computerized SAAQ as part of a 3—4-hr session.
Those under the age of 18 were accompanied by a non-abusing caretaker usually the mother. Neither the caretakers nor the researchers were present in the room when the computerized assessment took place. Monetary compensation was awarded at the completion of the assessments in accordance with the guidelines put forth by the National Institutes of Health Normal Volunteer Program.
As the structure of the SAAQ had not ly been explored, an exploratory analysis was performed on the Time 4 data, and the structure was then confirmed with factorial invariance on the Time 5 data.
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This procedure was used to a avoid doing both exploratory and confirmatory analyses on the same data and b to provide a stringent test that the constructs measured at Time 4 in adolescence could be derived with confidence at Time 5 in early adulthood. A scree plot of the eigenvalues indicated that four factors be extracted. Promax oblique rotation to an Equamax target was used to maximize simple structure.
A test of factorial invariance was performed to demonstrate that the solution derived from the Time 4 data could be confirmed in the Time 5 data and that the factor structure was invariant across the two times of measurement. The factor loading parameters derived from the Time 4 data were constrained to be equal or invariant to the factor loading parameters derived for the Time 5 data.
The difference in fit between the model where loadings are allowed to be freely estimated and the model where the loadings are constrained to be equal is a test of the metric invariance. These four factors were shown to be metrically invariant across the two times of measurement. The chi-square value for the free model was 2, with degrees of freedom, and the chi-square value for the constrained model was equal to 2, with degrees of freedom.
The change in chi-square 52 was not sufficiently large relative to the change in degrees of freedom 43suggesting that the two models are not statistically different from one another and that the factor loading parameter estimates can be considered invariant across times.
Factor intercorrelations are sufficiently low relative to alpha reliabilities indicating that each factor is independent, yet the constructs are somewhat related see Table 1. As responses ladies want sex jennie the SAAQ could be affected by marital or cohabitation status e.
Also, many constructs are age sensitive e. Table 2 contains SAAQ variable means, standard deviations, and percentages for the total sample and individually for the abused and comparison groups. To exact some control over the experimentwise alpha, we tested omnibus multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA models ladies want sex jennie each set of SAAQ variables in Table 2 to determine whether the groups differed ificantly with respect to the dependent variables while controlling for age and marital or cohabitation status.
Adjustments are made for age and marital or cohabitation status; p values correspond to post hoc, univariate tests. To test whether psychological functioning measured earlier in development had an effect on sexual distortion, we tested longitudinal structural models with LISREL 8.
Pathological dissociation, trait anxiety, and depression were measured at Time 1 in childhood and again at Time 4 in adolescence. Childhood sexual behavior problems were measured only at Time 1.