Tcl is shortened form of Tool Command Language. John Ousterhout of the University of California, Berkeley, deed it. It is a combination of a scripting language and its own interpreter that gets embedded to the application, we develop with it.
Although it can reach heights of 40—50 feet, it is slow growing and requires many years to attain that height. It has 8- to foot-long rigid leaves that contain up to V-shaped leaflets, the basal ones of which easy date tk modified into long, sharp spines Figure 1. Healthy specimens should have full, round canopies with — leaves, but potassium K deficiency typically reduces easy date tk of leaves in the canopy to half that or less. In South Florida, this species produces about 50 leaves per year. Leaves are not self-cleaning and must be manually removed when dead, but the leaf bases eventually rot off, leaving an attractive diamond-shaped pattern of leaf scars on the 2- to 3-foot-diameter trunk.
On older specimens, the basal foot or so of the trunk typically is covered with short root initials. Flower stalks are orange in color, about 3 feet in length, and bear male and female flowers on separate trees. Fruits are orange and edible, though not particularly tasty. Canary Island date palms readily hybridize with other Phoenix species, yielding individuals that vary considerably in their appearance from either parent. They can be grown on a wide range of soil types, with their primary requirement being good drainage.
They are drought tolerant and moderately tolerant of salt spray. Transplanting CIDP is no different from other species, with root balls of 2—3 feet from the trunk being typical. About half to two-thirds of the lower leaves should be removed at the time of digging to reduce water loss and facilitate handling.
The remaining leaves should be tied in a tight bundle with a long wooden splint attached to the trunk and the leaf bundle to prevent the crown from snapping off during handling Figure 2. Make sure that the palm's crown is fully supported when placed on a truck or trailer to prevent bud damage. Canary Island date palms are highly susceptible to K and magnesium Mg deficiencies under landscape conditions. Potassium deficiency symptoms appear as translucent light green to yellow and necrotic spotting on the oldest leaves.
As the deficiency progresses, leaflet tip necrosis becomes the predominant symptom. These necrotic leaflet tips are quite brittle and usually break easy date tk, leaving the distal portions of K-deficient leaves with irregular margins Figure 3.
Potassium deficiency symptoms are most severe toward the tips of the oldest leaves, with younger leaves and basal leaflets of all leaves showing few or no symptoms. Potassium deficiency also causes premature loss of older leaves, resulting in a canopy of many fewer leaves than is normal for the species. Because K-deficient older leaves are unsightly, they are often trimmed off. This is not recommended since these symptomatic older leaves easy date tk actually serving as a supplemental source of K for the tree in the absence of sufficient K in the soil.
Proper fertilization to alleviate K deficiency symptoms is the best solution to the problem. Most Canary Island date palms growing in the Southeast have some degree of K deficiency, but some also show striking lemon yellow bands along the outer margins of otherwise green older leaves. These symptoms are characteristic of Mg easy date tk.
When both K and Mg deficiencies exist on the same palm, the oldest lowest leaves show K deficiency symptoms, and the mid-canopy leaves display Mg deficiency symptoms Figure 4. Transitional leaves have Mg-deficient bases and K-deficient tips Figure 5. The larvae burrow into the heart of the palm, eventually killing it Figures 6 and 7. These weevils are particularly attracted to volatile chemicals emitted by stressed or wounded CIDP, which can attract weevils from up to half a mile away.
Features of tcl
Leaf removal during pruning and transplanting operations is a primary cause of palmetto weevil infestations. Insecticidal treatments of cut leaf surfaces is recommended for transplanted CIDP. The practice of trimming CIDP leaves into a "pineapple" shape is highly discouraged, not only because it removes leaves needed for K nutrition, but because these cut leaf wounds are strong attractants for palmetto weevils.
However, the wounds they create in the leaf bases attract the more destructive palmetto weevils that can ultimately kill the tree Figure 8. Canary Island date palms are susceptible to a of diseases, most of which are lethal. One disease that is mostly cosmetic in its effect is Graphiola leaf spot, commonly known as "false smut. The symptoms of Graphiola leaf spot are commonly confused with those easy date tk K deficiency, which also causes spotting on the oldest leaves.
Eventually, reproductive structures called "sori" erupt from the spots, producing small, thread-like structures that can easily be felt when rubbing a finger across the leaflet. Some literature suggests that this disease causes premature senescence of older leaves, but this is more likely caused by K deficiency, which is typically present on the same leaves. Easy date tk of this disease may not be warranted in a landscape situation since it requires multiple applications of fungicides to control, and the disease appears to do little harm to the palm.
Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f.
Early symptoms appear as necrosis of the leaflets on one side of the rachis Figure This is usually accompanied by a reddish-brown strip on the affected side of the rachis and petiole Figure Eventually, the entire leaf dies.
Symptoms usually begin on the easy date tk leaves and progress upward, leaving a skirt of dead leaves at the bottom of the canopy. Eventually, the palm dies. In this species, the disease is primarily transmitted by infested pruning tools, which spread the disease from one CIDP to another Figure Development of initial symptoms in the middle of the canopy is associated with pruning of flower and fruit stalks with infested pruning tools. There are no known chemical controls for this disease, but the rate of spread can be greatly reduced by disinfecting pruning tools between trees and avoiding trimming any leaves that are not completely dead.
It also causes necrosis of the leaflets on one side of the rachis and a reddish-brown stripe on the petiole. While it causes premature leaf loss, this disease usually does not kill palms. Chemical control of this disease has generally been ineffective, but fortunately, it appears to be seasonal.
There are two trunk rot diseases of CIDP. The first, Ganoderma butt rot, is caused by the fungus Ganoderma zonatum. This fungus is soilborne and infects the base of the trunk of mature palms, causing a central discoloration and rot within the bottom 3—4 feet. The palm may show wilt symptoms before dying Figure Shelf-like fruiting structures called "conks" may protrude from the trunk. These conks emerge whitish and look like hard marshmallows, but eventually develop into a shelf easy date tk characteristic reddish-brown tops and white bottoms.
A single conk can produce over a pint of reddish-brown, dust-like spores that are easily dispersed by the wind. Conks are not always produced, which makes disease diagnosis difficult.
Management in the landscape
There is no way to cure or prevent this disease, and there are no known environmental factors that favor or discourage it. While Ganoderma butt rot affects the basal portion of palm trunks, another disease, Thielaviopsis trunk rot, causes a soft rot and crown collapse in the upper part of the trunk.
This disease is caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis paradoxawhich requires a physical wound in the softer upper part of the trunk for infection to occur. Symptoms of this disease may include oozing and fermented trunk lesions, followed by wilting of the canopy, and ultimately canopy collapse Figure Unfortunately, this collapse is not always preceded by visible trunk symptoms or wilting of the foliage, so there may be no warning that the palm is about easy date tk fail.
Although there are no chemical controls for this disease, simply preventing trunk wounding and limiting leaf removal to dead leaves largely eliminates the chances of a palm becoming infected. Wounds favored by this fungus may be caused by pruning, pulling off old leaves prematurely, climbing spikes, and rough handling during transplanting. Both diseases are easy date tk by phytoplasmas that require phloem-feeding insect vectors for transmission. Symptoms in this species begin as flower or fruit abortion only during spring or summer monthsfollowed by premature death of older leaves.
When about one-third of the lower leaves have died, the spear leaf dies, with the remaining leaves easy date tk thereafter Figure Both diseases can be prevented by injecting the trunk three times per year with the antibiotic oxytetracycline. Broschat, T. Elliott, M. Broschat, J. Uchida, and G. Compendium of Diseases and Disorders of Ornamental Palms. Date: Southern Trees Fact Sheets. DOI: doi. Home Experts Topics. Figure 1. Healthy Canary Island date palms. Credit: T.
Figure 2. Proper handling of Canary Island date palm.
Figure 3. Potassium-deficient older leaf tip of Canary Island date palm. Figure 4. Canary Island date palm showing potassium and magnesium deficiencies.